The Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre First of October Antifascist Resistance Group started from a far left Spanish terrorist organization born in 1975. In 2006, the High Court considered that the GRAPO were the armed wing of the Partido Comunista de España [Communist Party of Spain], PCE (r). Throughout their history they killed more than 80 people, mostly police and military personnel.

In August 1975 the first armed action of this terrorist organization took place in an attack in Madrid against two police officers in which one was killed and his colleague was seriously wounded. After this murder the attacks happened. After the death of Franco in 1975, GRAPO continued to perform increasingly violent terrorist acts, kidnappings and bombings which caused a huge impact on society.

With the amnesty of 1976 and the action of the police, the PCE (r) became a residual and very minority group. The armed actions of GRAPO continued sporadically planting explosives, carrying out assaults and extorting businessmen. In 1976 and 1977 they were behind the kidnapping of the president of the State Council, Antonio María de Oriol y Urquijo, and President of the Supreme Council of Military Justice, Emilio Villaescusa Quilis respectively. On January 18, 1985 in a large police operation in several cities in Spain 18 people were arrested. Even so, they continued their activity as murderers and kidnappers, including businessman Publio Cordon who died during his enforced disappearance.

On March 18, 2003 Baltasar Garzón stopped the activities and ordered the closure of the premises in Spain and abroad of the Partido Comunista de España reconstituido PCE (r) due to considering it the political arm of the Grupos Revolucionarios Antifascistas Primero de Octubre (Grapo) thus adding to the request of the prosecutor Enrique Molina of the High Court, who in October 2002 had submitted a report stating that the central committee of the PCE (r) “ideologically feeds the military arm of the terrorist organization.”